By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae provide strength to provide renewable chemical compounds and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas concurrently lowering the new release of greenhouse gases. because those could be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients usually found in waste streams, algae-based chemical compounds and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale creation of algae-based fuels and chemical substances faces substantial technological and cost effective demanding situations and it will by means of necessity require a biorefinery procedure in which the entire attainable algal elements are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the state-of-the-art of alternative applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the amount II of this sequence enhances the amount I when it comes to the present state-of-the-art. varied chapters during this quantity deal with varied matters starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Extra info for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
Naturally, microbial production of foods, pharmaceuticals, or other products within FDA’s traditional jurisdiction would be subject to that agency’s oversight, however, the nature and scientific basis for such regulation is outside the scope of this chapter and will not be discussed here. However, a common strategy for companies developing modified yeasts or other nonpathogenic microorganisms for ethanol, fuel or chemical production is to plan to use of the spent biomass that remains after the production process in animal feed.
For larger-scale industrial uses (and agricultural applications) the emphasis of government regulation shifted to the need to assess potential environmental impacts, and to the development of appropriate risk assessment methods in support of such regulatory programs. Microorganisms need to be grown in large scale in order to have industrial utility, especially for the production of commodity products like biofuels. For the most part, this will involve the hardware and processes that have usually been used for those native microbial species that have been exploited commercially, which might typically involve traditional industrial fermentations.
Biological characterization of the microorganism. Potential health effects of the microorganism, such as pathogenicity or toxicity (can be addressed from testing or from the literature). Potential environmental effects of the microorganism (can be addressed from testing or from the literature). Detailed information about the industrial process, including the measures that will be taken to minimize release of the microorganism from the facility. The extent to which workers might be exposed to the microorganism.
Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design by Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi