By A. G. Brown
This entire technical handbook is designed to offer archaeologists the mandatory historical past wisdom in environmental technological know-how required to excavate and learn archaeological websites by way of rivers and on floodplains. Bringing jointly info at the evolution and exploitation of floodplain and river landscapes, this article attracts on examples from Britain, Europe, North the United States and Australasia. an incredible subject is the interplay among climatic and cultural forces and the transformation of riverine environments.
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Additional info for Alluvial Geoarchaeology: Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology)
As Figure Intro. 5 illustrates, different links in the chain of culture-environment relationships require different methods of analysis ranging from sedimentology to documentary history. Introduction and the example of the Nile Social/political repercussions > 13 Technology, planning >k FOOD SUPPLY >k > Nile mythology Irrigation fertility Flood recording >A • Floods SW monsoon ENSO events Solar forcing ^ • Establishable by archaeology and written record • The sedimentary record > Established through recent climate research Fig.
Burrin and Scaife, 1984) and colluvium from adjacent hillslopes (Brown, 1992). In large systems such as the lower floodplains and deltas of the Rhine active windblown dunes have frequently formed during the Holocene and are recorded in sedimentary sequences (Tornqvist, 1993). e. high slopes and/or flashy hydrometeorological regimes) another set of sediments may be present, including landslide, debrisflow and mudflow deposits. Although less common in temperate regions, throughout the Holocene, they can be important in upland areas where the result can be the destruction or burial of archaeological evidence, leaving little from which to construct the palaeoenvironment of the site.
They celebrated the God at the festivals of inundation, and because of the central role of the river in the Egyptian economy the collection of accurate hydrological records began in the First Dynasty (c. 3000 BC) with the engraving of maximum annual flood height on a large stone stele. The first Nilometer (fixed recording device or structure) was cut into the rocks at Samnah in the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 2200-2000 BC). The Nile's behaviour formed the basis of the oldest Egyptian calendar, which divided the year up into three parts, one of which (Akhet) was the main flood season.
Alluvial Geoarchaeology: Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology) by A. G. Brown