By Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos
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Extra info for Anaerobic reactors
If some cation is found at an inhibiting concentration in the inﬂuent sewage, inhibition can be reduced if an antagonistic ion is either present or added to the system. 4. Antagonistic elements are usually added by means of chloride salts. 4. Stimulating and inhibiting concentrations of some cations Cation Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Stimulating 100 to 200 75 to 150 200 to 400 100 to 200 Source: McCarty (1964) Concentration (mg/L) Moderately inhibiting 2,500 to 4,500 1,000 to 1,500 2,500 to 4,500 3,500 to 5,500 Strongly inhibiting 8,000 3,000 12,000 8,000 36 (b) Anaerobic reactors Toxicity by ammonia Usually, the presence of ammonia bicarbonate, resulting from the digestion of sewage rich in urea- or protein-based compounds, is beneﬁcial to the digester as a source of nitrogen and as a buffer for pH changes.
According to Ripley et al. 3 indicate the occurrence of disturbances in the anaerobic digestion process. 3, and the veriﬁcation of each particular case is recommended (Foresti, 1994). (e) Alkalinity necessary for the process From the operational point of view, if the alkalinity is generated from the inﬂuent sewage, the maintenance of high levels of alkalinity in the system is desirable because high concentrations of volatile acids could be buffered without causing a substantial drop in pH. However, if an alkalinity supplementation is necessary, then the selection of chemical compounds shall be evaluated in terms of applicability and economy.
However, if an alkalinity supplementation is necessary, then the selection of chemical compounds shall be evaluated in terms of applicability and economy. The minimum acceptable alkalinity requirement depends on the 34 Anaerobic reactors concentration of the sewage, a decisive factor to determine the potential generation of acids in the system. According to van Haandel and Lettinga (1994), the most important issue related to the pH value and stability is whether the alkalinity of the medium (inﬂuent alkalinity+generated alkalinity) is sufﬁcient to keep itself at levels considered safe.
Anaerobic reactors by Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos