By Fangming Jin
This bookreviews the new advances in hydrothermal conversion of biomass into chemical substances and fuels, and includes 15 chapters. It introduces the homes of high-temperature water, the advantages of hydrothermal conversion of biomass, and a few novel hydrothermal conversion tactics, frequently together with hydrothermal construction of value-added items, hydrothermal gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. This ebook introduces a brand new idea for counteracting the imbalance within the carbon cycle, that is brought on by the fast intake of fossil fuels in anthropogenic actions together with the sluggish formation of fossil fuels. therefore, the booklet turns out to be useful in conveying a basic figuring out of hydrothermal conversion of biomass within the carbon cycle in order that a contribution should be made to attaining sustainable strength and surroundings. it's also fascinating to a large readership in numerous fields together with chemical, geologic and environmental technological know-how and engineering.
Fangming Jin is a special Professor on the college of Environmental technological know-how & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong college, China
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Additional info for Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion
1 A principal reaction pathway of cellulose by hydrothermal conversion As shown in Fig. , hexoses) in the furanose form [13, 14]. 5 % of furanose tautomers in aqueous solution can be converted into HMF easier than glucose which contains only 1 % of furanose tautomers in aqueous solutions. However, acid catalyst can improve the yield of HMF from glucose by increasing isomerization of glucose into fructose followed by Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose to HMF . Mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4)  and acid metal salts  are usually adopted acid.
A principal reaction pathway from cellulose to organic acids and their reactions are also discussed. The results show that from cellulose to organic acids, the production processes are mainly composed of four stages of reactions. The reaction conditions were also optimized for production of organic acids and copper. These results show that a selective production of organic acids including lactic acid, glycolic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid can be achieved by varying reaction temperature and time and ratio of CuO and NaOH addition.
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Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion by Fangming Jin